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Instituto de Biologia Unicamp






ABSTRACTA IB (2) - 1999


P118-98 Ecologia e evolução de interações bióticas

Duarte LFL

Todo ser vivo tem que estar evolutivamente ajustado ao ambiente em que vive. Tal ajustamento depende de quão bem cada indivíduo lida tanto com os fatores bióticos quanto com os fatores físicos do seu ambiente.
Biológico 60: 41-51, 1998.

P119-98 The effect of sieve mesh size on the abundance and composition of macrophyte-associated macrofaunal assemblages

Tanaka MO, Leite FPP*

Sampling efficiency of several sieve mesh sizes was tested in invertebrate assemblages associated to Sargassum spp. Two species of this brown algae were collected in southeastern Brazil to determine whether different sampling devices resulted in differences on the abundance and compositions of the macrofauna. Our results suggest that caution should be exercised when deciding on which sieve to use, as the most used mesh sizes in benthic studies (1 and 0.5 mm) may result in very different estimates of diversity and abundance, as well as community structure patterns.
Hydrobiologia 389: 21-28, 1998. IF= 0.526

P120-98 Are Brazilian species of Elytrosphaera (Col. Chrysomelidae), an apterous genus, threatened of extinction?

Vasconcellos Neto J*, Jolivet P

The Neotropical genus Elytrosphaera is composed of apterous montane species. The subgenus Elytrosphaera s. str. Occurs mainly in Brazilian plateau with 8 species, and one in Yungas del Palmar, Bolivia, at altitudes varying from 800 to 2000 m. These Brazilian species are threatened with extinction due to their life style and to their distribution over na area with high human density under agricultural na industrialized activities.
Mus. Reg. Sci. Nat. Torino 1: 299-309, 1998.

P121-98 New biological data on the apterous beetle Elytrosphaera lahtivirtai Bechyné (Chrysomelidae: Chrysomelinae) and remarks on the biology and distribuition of the genus

Macedo MV, Vasconcellos Neto J*, Jolivet P

Elytrosphaera lahtivirtai Bechyné feeds on Solanum caeruleum Vell. (Solanaceae) between 1000 and 1200 m altitude in the National Park od Itatiaia Country, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. E.xantopyga Stal, which has several subspecies, has a wider distribuition on the Brazilian plateau and can be found simpratrically with the first species. Adults from the two species are very similar though their larval stages and host plants are quite different. A general review of the distribuition of the genus Elytrosphaera is outlined.
Mus. Reg. Sci. Nat. Torino 1: 271-279, 1998.

P122-98 Life history and social behavior of Anelosimus jabaquara and Anelosimus dubiosus (Araneae, Theridiidae)

Marques ESA, Vasconcellos Neto J*, Mello MB

The life history and social behavior of two sympatric spider species, A. dubiosus and A. jabaquara (family, Theridiidae), were examined to provide comparative data of intermediate social behaviors in this genus of social spiders. Both species occur in sympatry in a subtropical humid lowland forest in Brazil and shared very similar life history traits such as univoltinism and slightly biased subadult sex ratios with more females per colony than males. The reproductive periods in A. dubiosus and A. jabaquara were desynchronized by one month with A. dubiosus reaching maturity and mating in November. Both species showed cooperation in spinning and repairing the colonial web, in capturing prey and caring for the brood. We suggest that A. dubiosus presents a more complex array of social behaviors when compared to A. jabaquara probably due to a greater tolerance of other conspecific individuals. Anelosimus dubiosus would be a non-territorial permanent-social species in the same behaviors than any of the forner species.
Journal of Arachnology 26: 227-237, 1998. IF= 0.294

P123-98 Borboletas (Lepidoptera) ameaçadas de extinção em Minas Gerais, Brasil

Casagrande MM, Mielke OHH,Brown Jr KS

The twenty species of butterflies (diurnal Lepidoptera) considered as threatened in the Minas Gerais (by statute) are described and discussed in relation to distribution, appearance and known records. Revista brasileira de Zoologia 15: 241-259, 1998.

P124-98 Malacofauna da Região Entremarés de Praias da Ilha de São Sebastião (São Paulo, Brasil)

Salvador LB, Domaneschi O, Amaral ACZ*, Morgado EH, Henriques SA

Intertidal malacofauna of sandy beaches of São Sebastião Island (São Paulo, Brazil). This paper reports a concise characterization, based on shell morphology, of 52 species collected during one year at intertidal regions of Barra Velha, Perequê and Engenho D’água beaches. Substrate information, species occurrence and geographic distribution are also provided.
Revista Brasileira de Zoologia 15: 1013-1035, 1998.

P125-98 Hermit crabs (Crustacea, Anomura), gastropod shells and environmental structure: their relationship in southeastern Brazil

Leite FPP*, Turra A, Gandolfi SM

Species composition and shell utilization pattern of hermit crabs were studied in five areas of São Sebastião Channel. Habitat characteristics were evaluated and related to the presence and relative abundance of crabs. The hermit crab species were: Clibanarius antillensis Stimpson, 1862, Clibanarius vittatus (Bosc, 1802), Clibanarius sclopetarius (Saussere, 1858), Calcinus tibicen (Herbst, 1971), Paguristes tortugae Schimitt 1933, Paguristes erythrops Holthuis, 1959, Petrochirus diogenes (Linnaeus, 1758), Pagurus criniticornis (Dana, 1852) and Pagurus brevidactylius (Stimpson, 1859). The major characteristics influencing hermit crab presence, relative abundance and distribution were the water retention capacity of the rocky shore, that is a direct effect of habitat complexity, and its slope and hydrodinamism.
Journal of Natural History 32: 1599-1609, 1998. IF= 0.558

P126-98 Nuclear phenotypes and DNA content in GBK cell line infected with viruses of Aujeszky’s disease and bovine diarrhoea

Mello MLS*, Koseki I

Changes in DNA amount and chromatin supraorganization differing from those reported for transformed cells or cells subjected to environmental stress were demonstrated in GBK cells with advancing infection with the viruses of Aujeszky’s disease and bovine diarrhoea. Cytobios 95: 111-121, 1998.

P127-98 Is hypertrophy limited in elderly muscle fibers? A comparison of elderly and young strenght-trained men

Hikida RS, Walsh S, Barylski N, Campos GER*, Hagerman FC, Staron RS

To investigate the capacity to hypertrophy and the satellite cell populations to change with age, the nucleo-cytoplasmic relationships and satellite cells were compared in skeletal muscles of young and elderly men before and after strength training. Vastus lateralis muscle biopsies were taken before and after 8 (young) or 16 weeks (elderly men) of strength training and compaared to muscle from untrained men. The results suggest that the increase in myonuclear number accompanies and iss proportional to fiber hypertrophy in the young, but it is still unclear to what extent this occurs in the elderly. The percentage of satellite cells did not differ between young and elderly muscles. Basic Applied Myology 8: 419-427, 1998.
*E-mail: grcampos@obelix.unicamp

P128-98 Degradation of caffeine by Pseudomonas putida isolated from soil

Yamaoka-Yano DM, Mazzafera P*

Soil samples from different coffee production areas of Brazil were used for the isolation of bacteria with the ability to degrade caffeine as a sole source of nitrogen and carbon. Nineteen bacterial isolates were obtained, Pseudomonas putida being the most common and more effective in caffeine degradation. Our results indicares that there may be enough caffeine in the soil to support a diverse population of caffeine degraders, which might influence alielopathic response due to caffeine. However, in situ experiments are required to adequately demonstrate the role of these bacteria in eliminating the allelopathic effect of caffeine in soil.Allelopathy Journal 5: 23-34, 1998.

P129-98 Produção de anticorpos para cafeína e seu derivado cafeinidina

Mazzafera P*, Vitória AP

São apresentados dados sobre a conjugação de cafeína e seu derivado cafeinidina com albumina de soro bovino e sua utilização para a produção de anticorpos. Galinhas poedeiras foram imunizadas e as globulinas extraídas das gemas dos ovos. Por ensaios de imunoprecipitação pode-se verificar que ambos anticorpos reagiram com seus respectivos antígenos, cafeína e cafeinidina. Também verificou-se que a posição do radical metil em mono e dimetilxantinas era importante para o reconhecimento antígeno-anticorpo. Metilação na posição N-3 pareceu ser determinante para o reconhecimento pelo anticorpo produzido para o conjugado cafeinidina-BSA. Por outro lado, metilação na posição N-7 foi importante para o conjugado cafeína-BSA. Discute-se as vantagens de um anticorpo sobre o outro e a possibilidade de seu emprego em testes imunológicos para determinação de alcalóides purínicos totais em material vegetal e seus derivados alimentícios. Revista de Ciência e Tecnologia de Alimentos 18: 13-16, 1998.

P130-98 Development and germination of seeds of Laelia Purpurata Lindl. (Orchidaceae)

Stancato GC, Chagas EP, Mazzafera P*

Germination rates, non-estructural carbohydrates, total proteins,lipids and dry mass accumulation were followed in seeds from self-pollinated Laelia purpurata. The seeds were collected from capsules after 3, 4 5 and 6 months after pollination. At the last collection dehiscence had occurred. Electrophoretic profiles of denatured proteins were also obtained. Lipids were the main reserve compounds in seeds, increasing with dry mass accumulation. At the later developmental stages, when lipid contents had reached their maximum values, soluble sugars and proteins showed sharp increases, the former in amounts almost comparable to lipids. Electrophoretic profiles showed that some low molar mass proteins accumulated from early stages. Seeds from capsules collected after 3 and 4 months did not germinate. Germination rates were determined 30, 60 and 90 days after sowing and were higher with seeds taken from 5-month capsules than those from 6-month capsules. Lindleyana 13: 97-100, 1998.

131-98 Ultraviolet HPLC-derived profiles as a tool in Coffea (Rubiaceae) taxonomy

Mazzafera P*, Guerreiro Filho O

Methanofic extracts from coffec pulps from fruits of ten species of Coffea were analyzed by I-IPLC using an ultraviolet detector at 280 nm. Since the extraction and analyses were essentialy equal for ali materiais, standardized relative areas of the peaks obtained in the I-IPLC profiles were used to estabhsh genetic relationships among the species. The data constitute an initial step in developing a dassification of coffee species based upon enzymic variation. We suggest that in addition to the identification of five compounds, enzyme investigations, including assays with different substrates, homology determination by amino acid sequencing, and molecular biology investigation using designei probes woould give valuable information on the genetic relationships of coffee. Journal of Comparative Biology 3: 15-20, 1998.

P132-98 Effects of Pratylenchus brachyurus and P. coffeae on seedlings of Coffea arabica

Inomoto MM, Oliveira CMG, Mazzafera P*, Gonçalves W

Experiments were carried out to evaluate the effects of Pratylenchus brachyurus and P. coffeae on Coffea arabica. Seedlings of C. arabica cv. Catuaí cultivars were kept free or inoculated with 1,000 motile stages of P. brachyurus. Ninety days after inoculation, the growth parameters and rate were evaluated. The results show that both cultivars were intolerant hosts for P. brachyurus.
Journal of Nematology 30: 362-367, 1998. IF= 0.618

P133-98 Cytokinin-like effects of caffeine in bioassays

Vitória AP, Mazzafera P*

Cytokinin-like effects of pure caffeine were tested in bioassays specific for this hormonal activity and in cell elongation bioassays. 6-benzyl-aminopurine and kinetin (KIN) were used for comparison with caffeine. Although weaker than those given by cytokinins, positive responses were observed in all specific bioassays and in elongation of soybean internodes. A remarkable synergistic effect between caffeine and KIN was observed for the synthesis of Chl in the tobacco cell suspension bioassay, in which different concentrations of the alkaloid were combined with a single concentration of KIN. The hormone-like effect of caffeine might be related to the resemblance between caffeine and adenine derivatives.Biologia Plantarum 40: 329-335, 1997/98. IF= 0.393

P134-98 Alterações fisiológicas no algodoeiro causadas pelo nematóide Meloidogyne incognita raça 3: influência do nitrogênio

Abrão MM, Mazzafera P*

Nematologia Brasileira 22: 66-79, 1998.


P135-98 Purification of leghemoglobin from nodules of Crotalaria infected with Rhizobium

Mendonça ehm, Mazzafera P, Schiavinato MA*

The leghemoglobin from nodules of Crotalaria juncea infected with Rhizobium spp. was purified after precipitation with 40-80% (NH4)2SO4, and chromatography on two anionic exchange and one gel filtration columns. The leghemoglobin has a single component and showed an apparent Mr of ca 17,300 and 23,700 determined by SDS-PAGE and gel filtration, respectively. The N-terminal amino acid sequence for the first 19 residues showed high similarities with several other leghemoglobin from other plants Iron was detected only in the band corresponding to the purified protein..

Phytochemistry 50: 313-316, 1998. IF= 1.165

P136-98 Chemical composition of defective coffee beans

Mazzafera P*

lmmature-black beans (VP) and immature beans (V), known by the Brazilian coffee terminology as 'café verde-preto' and 'café verde', are defective beans and cause a reduction of the quality of the beverage. Their presence in raw coffee samples is due to a high percentage of immature fruits at harvest. In this study, some of their physico-chemical properties and chemical composition were investigated and compared with non-defective coffee beans (B). The results showed that, depending on the substance analysed, its content in the B beans is significantly affected. Although the influence of each component of the raw coffee bean that determines beverage quality has never been established, our results show that the presence of defective beans can drasticaily change the chemical composition of the final product.

Food Chemistry 64:103-110, 1998. IF= 0.812


P137-98 Caffeine degradation in leaves and fruits of Coffea arabica and C. dewevrei

Vitória AP, Mazzafera P*

The coffee species Coffea dewevrei and Coffea arabica have marked differences in caffeine metabolism and the controi of the caffeine content during fruit ripening and leaf aging is still not clear. The aim of this work was a detailed investigation on the aikaloid degradation in young and aged leaves, and immature and mature fruits of these species. Young and aged leaves, and immature and mature fruits were fed with [2-"C] caffeine. After an incubation period they were extracted for [2-"C] caffeine and metabolites and analysed by reversed-phase liquid chromatography and radiocounting of collected fractions. In leaves and fruits of Coffea dewevrei there were higher degradation rates of caffeine. In both species, compared to young tissues, aged leaves and mature fruits presented lower capacity to degrade the aikaloid, what was shown by the low radioactivities detected in the metabolites formed in the degradation pathway. It is concluded that the ratio between biosynthesis and biodegradation controls the variation of the caffeine content during fruit ripening and leaf aging in C. arabica and C. dewevrei.

Pesquisa Agropecuária Brasileira 33: 1857-1861, 1998. IF= 0.051


P138-98 Orthogonal projections and bootstrap resampling procedures in the study of infraspecific variation

Duarte LC, Von Zuben FJ, Reis SF*

The effects of an increase in quantitative continuous characters resulting from indeterminate growth upon the analysis of population differentiation was investigated using, as an example, a set of continuous characters measured as ditance variables in 10 populations of a rodent species. The data before and after correction for allometric size effects using orthogonal projections were analyzed with a parametric bootstrap resampling procedure applied to canonical variate analysis. The variance component of the distance measures attributable to indeterminate growth with the populatios was found to be substantial, although the ordination of the populations was not affected, as evidenced by the relative and absolute positions of centroids. The covariance pattern of the distance variables used to infer the nature of the morphological differences was strongly influenced by indeterminate growth. The uncorrected data produced a misleading picture of morphological differentiation by indicating that groups of populations differed in size. However, the data corrected for allometric effects clearly demonstrated that populations differed morphologically both in size and shape. These results are discussed in terms of the analysis of morphological differentiation among populations and the definition of infraspecific geographic units.

Genetics and Molecular Biology 21: 479-486, 1998. IF= 0.291


P139-98 Scaling phenomena and ecological interactions in space: Cutting to the core

Duarte LC, Boldrini JC, Reis SF

Mathematical models that describe ecological interactions in space are reviewed. Difusion models and moment equation models are compared in their hability to predict the outcome of population dynamics and competitive interactions in a spatial framework. Special attention is given to models described by equations of the type

Trends in Ecology and Evolution 13: 176-177, 1998. IF= 6.678


P139-98 Scaling phenomena and ecological interactions in space: Cutting to the core

Duarte LC, Boldrini JC, Reis SF

Mathematical models that describe ecological interactions in space are reviewed. Difusion models and moment equation models are compared in their hability to predict the outcome of population dynamics and competitive interactions in a spatial framework. Special attention is given to models described by equations of the type

Trends in Ecology and Evolution 13: 176-177, 1998. IF= 6.678


P140-98 Delayed density dependence in the immature stage in insects and the dynamic behavior of nonlinear difference equations

Teixeira MA, Von Zuben FJ, Godoy WAC, Von Zuben CJ, Reis SF*

A growing body of evidence indicates that the conditions experienced by immatures in insects, in particular crowding, have a lasting consequence for the population dynamics of adults. In this case, as first demonstrated by Prout, the dynamic characteristics of populations sampled at the adult stage may not be derived. We examine the dynamic properties of the model proposed by Prout to take into account the delayed effect of two life-history traits, survival and fecundity, occurring at the immature stage. Two parameters are present in the model: b , which describes the rate of change in survival and fecundity with respect to increasing density of immatures, and a which combines maximum survival and fecundity. The latter parameter is found to determine the dynamic behavior of Prout’s model, and this model is shown to be a reparametrization of the classical discrete logistic equation. In the interval 1 < a < e2 there is one fixed point, at a = e2 there is period doubling bifurcation, and due to the appearance of period three Prout’s model show chaotic behavior. The theoretical results are briefly discussed in the light of data on the equilibrium dynamics of Drosophila and blowflies.

Ciência & Cultura 50: 268-272, 1998.


P141-98 Bootstrap confidence regions for canonical variates: Application to studies of evolutionary differentiation

Von Zuben FJ, Duarte LC, Stangenhaus G, Pessôa LM, Reis SF*

Theory recently developed to construct confidence regions based on the parametric bootstrap is applied to add inferential information to graphical displays of sample centroids in canonical variate analysis. Problems of morphometric differentiation among subspecies and species are addressed using numerical resampling procedures.

Biometrical Journal 40:1-13, 1998. IF= 0.260


P142-98 Levantamento e sazonalidade de Coleópteros (Histeridae) em criação de aves poedeiras

Gianizella SL, Prado AP*

The species composition and the seasonality of histerid beetles were studied in Monte Mor (SP) from September 1992 to September 1993 at 15 d. intervals using pitfall-trap and Berlese’s funnel. Seven species of histerid beetles were recorded: Euspilotus modestus Erichson, Carcinops troglodites Paykull, Euspilotus (Hesperosaprimus) sp., Hololepta quadridentata Fab., Hister dubius Mars., Acritus sp. and Phelister sp. . E. modestus (52%) and C. troglodites (33%) were the most abundant. They showed the highest association (1) of Whitaker & Fairbanks index. The sampling methods had a direct influence on the numbers of beetles, principally, to E. modestus and C. troglodites.

Anais da Sociedade Entomológica do Brasil 27: 551-557, 1998.


P143-98 Dynamics of Equilibrium in Experimental Populations of Cochliomyia macellaria (Diptera: Calliphoridae)

Ribeiro OB*

Cochliomyia macellaria is an important species of the necrophagous dipteran community. This blowfly is produces myiasis in man and other animals, and is a mechanical carrier of enteropathogens. The dynamics of experimental populations of C. macellaria were examined using a model developed by PROUT & McCHESNEY (1985) which describes density-dependent population growth. This model incorporates two important component of fitness (fecundity and survival) in a finite difference equation that allows evaluation of the population dynamics. Different egg densities, varying from 100 to 3,000 eggs, were established on a fixed amount (100g) of food. The larvae and adults were maintained on a constant photoperiod (12h:12h) (L:D), at a temperature of 25oC and 60% R.H. Linear, exponential, and hyperbolic regressions were fitted to describe the dependence of fecundity and survival on egg density. The results showed a predominance of one-equilibrium point. Fecundity and survival decreased as the density of immatures increased.

Revista Brasileira de Entomologia 42: 43-51, 1998.


P144-98 Attenuated Salmonella typhimurium strains expressing Escherichia coli enterotoxin: level of expressing and immunogenicity

Covone MG, Brocchi M, Palla E, Silveira WDS

Infection and Immunity 66: 224-231, 1998. IF= 3.713

P145-98 Evidence for cross recativity between antigen derived from Trypanosoma cruzi and myelin basic protein in experimental Chagas disease

Al-Sabagh A, Garcia CAAC, Diaz-Bardalles BM, Zacarias C, Sakurada JK, Santos LMB

Experimental Parasitology 89: 304-311, 1998. IF= 1.512

P146-98 Interaction between ants and seeds of a nonmyrmecochorous neotropical tree, Cabralea canjerana (Meliaceae), in the Atlantic forest of Southeast Brazil

Pizo MA, Oliveira PS*

On the forest floor of two Atlantic forest sites in southeast Brazil, we recorded 26 ant species interacting with the seeds of Cabralea canjerana (Meliaceae), a typical ornithochorous tree whose seeds are covered by a lipid-rich aril. The ants treat the arillate seeds in three different ways: (1) the large ponerine ants Pachycondyla striata and Odontomachus chelifer individually remove the seeds to their nests, (2) many species (Pheidole spp.) recruit workers to remove the aril on the spot, or (3) Solenopsis spp. recruit nestmates and cover the seeds with soil before removing the aril on the spot. By removing bird-manipulated and naturally fallen seeds, ants can play a key role in the fate of medium-sized seeds like those of C. canjerana.

American Journal of Botany 85: 669-674, 1998. IF= 1.715


P147-98 Division of labor in the neotropical ant Pachycondyla stigma (Ponerinae), with special reference to mutual antennal rubbing between nestmates

Oliveira PS*, Obermayer M, Hölldobler B

In the ponerine ant species Pachycondyla stigma the social organization and reproductive activity is closely linked with the rate at which individual colony members perform mutual antennal rubbings with nestmates. During these encounters the ants rub their antennae over the openings of a front-tibial gland of the encountered nestmates. The inseminated queen engaged in such mutual rubbings at a much higher rate than non-inseminated queens and workers. We suggest that the tibial glands in the front-legs of queens produce either an inhibitory chemical signal, or more likely, the secretion signals the reproductive state to nestmates who might respond by refraining from reproduction.

Sociobiology 31: 9-24, 1998. IF= 0.606


P148-98 Interactions Between Fungus-Growing Ants (Attini), Fruits and Seeds in Cerrado Vegetation in Southeast Brazil

Leal IR, Oliveira PS*

We surveyed the material collected for fungus-culturing by attine ants in the cerrado vegetation of Southeast Brazil. Six genera of the so-called lower attines (Cyphomyrmex, Mycetarotes, Mycocepurus, Myrmicocrypta, Sericomyrmex and Trachymyrmex) collected a wide variety of plant material as fungal substrate. The results indicate that attine-fruit/seed interactions are particularly conspicuous in the cerrado, suggesting that fungus-growing ants may play a relevant role in fruit/seed biology in this vegetation type. Potential ant-derived benefits to diaspores of non-myrmecochorous plants in the cerrado would include secondary seed dispersion and/or increased germination success by ant-handled seeds.

Biotropica 30: 170-178, 1998. IF= 0.542


P149-98 Interaction between ants and plants bearing extrafloral nectaries in cerrado vegetation

Oliveira PS*, Pie MR

Extrafloral nectaries (EFNs) are nectar-secreting glands not directly involved with pollination which may occur on virtually all above-ground plant parts of angiosperms. Recent studies revealed that such glands are widely distributed amongs the woody flora of the Brazilian cerrados. Plants bearing EFNs are visited day and night by a diverse assemblage of nectarivorous ants. In this review we present the data gathered during the past 15 years on the interaction between ants and EFN-bearing plants in cerrado vegetation. Field experiments indicate that ants visiting EFNs may prey or attack insect herbivores ont the plant foliage, significantly reducing herbivore damage to leaves, buds or flowers. Sa a response, some herbivore species have developed na array of mechanisms to circumvent the ants’deterring capacities on their host plants. Ant-derived benefits to plants, however, may vary with the species of visiting ant, with the defensive tacticsof the associated herbivores, as well as with the plant species. We discuss the results obtained for different cerrado plant species, and suggest some promising topicis for future experimental investigation.

Anais da Sociedade Entomológica do Brasil 27: 161-176, 1998.


P150-98 Reproductive biology of the neotropical harvestman (Goniosoma longipes) (Arachnida, Opiliones, Gonyleptidae): mating and oviposition behaviour, brood mortality, and parental care

Machado G, Oliveira PS*

Goniosoma longipes is a neotropical cavernicolous harvestman that exhibits parental care. Reproductive activity in G. longipes is more intense during the wet season. Field experiments in which females were removed from egg batches demonstrated that egg-guarding by the mother has an anti-predator role in G. longipes, with a significant positive effect on egg survival. Male G. longipes actively patrol their egg-guarding mates, and take over brood care for up to two weeks if the latter are experimentally removed. However, the degree to which male assistance can play a relevant role in parental care is still unclear for this species. Damage to brood is regarded as a major force favouring the evolution of parental care in harvestman species. This field study provides the first experimental demonstration that egg-guarding by females affords protection against egg predation in a harvestman species.

Journal of Zoology, London 246: 359-367, 1998. IF= 0.852


P151-98 Assessing relative age and age structure in natural populations of Bolomys lasiurus (Rodentia: Sigmodontinae) in northeastern Brazil

Oliveira JA, Strauss RE, Reis SF*

Wear-induced changes in the crown topography of molariform teeth have been widely used to index relative age in rodents. To assess the consistency of molar-wear estimates in natural pouplations of a sigmodont rodent (Bolomys lasiurus), we investigated the association between molar wear and two other age-dependent craniodental characters: degree of exposure of molar roots from the alveoli and ossification of the basisphenoid-basioccipital suture. We compared magnitudes of Spearman correlation coefficients among states of these characters in samples cross-classified by vegetation, season, and locality, under the null hypothesis of high correlation in the absence of differential environmental effects on molar wear. We employed a multivariate procedure to reduce subjectivity of classifying combinations of indices of age into age classes. An objective ordering of sets of indices of age was provided by projecting individuals onto the first principal component. The method revealed age-frequency differences between wet- and dry-season samples from northeastern Brazil, ostensibly due to the occurrence of a reproductive peak at the begining of the rainy season, and predicted a maximum life span for B. lasiurus of ca. 1-1.5 years in the wild.

Journal of Mammalogy 79: 1170-1183, 1998. IF= 0.991



P152-98 Morphological affinities of Proechimys yonenagae Rocha, 1995 (Rodentia: Echimyidae): Evidence from bacular and cranial characters

Pessôa LM, Von Zuben FJ, Reis SF*

Proechimys yonenagae is a species of spiny rat in the rodent family Echimyidae that was recently described from the Caatingas biome of northeastern Brazil, a geographic area characterized by semi-arid climatic conditions. P. yonenagae departs from the remaining taxa in the genus in its habitat in that it inhabits fossil sand dunes. Morphologically, this species diverges from its congenerics by the presence of morphological traits usually associated with life in desertic environments, such as a well developed tail brush, large hind feet and an inflated bulla. In the original description, the conjecture was raised, based on a cladistic and biogeographic rationale, that P. yonenagae is phyletically close to P. albispinus. An alternative hypothesis of affinities is derived here from the perspective of the structure of the morphological variation of qualitative bacular features and quantitative cranial traits. The results indicate that P. yonenagae shares closer morphological affinities with taxa in the P. iheringi complex than with P. albispinus.

Bonner zoologischer Beiträge 48: 167-177, 1998.



AN003-98 Extração de princípios ativos dos grãos de café do Brasil

Saldaña MA, Mohamed RS, Mazzafera P*

A descafeinação do café canephora é vantajosa para a obtenção da cafeína e valorização desta espécie. A cafeína, um estimulante e diurético, é usado pelas indústrias de bebidas de refrigerante e farmacêutica. Existem patentes industriais usando CO2 supercítrico na extração da cafeína do café. Porém, pouco é divulgado sobre a extração da trigonelina (fonte de vitamina B3), que atua no sistema nervoso central, na secreção da bile e no intestino. O objetivo deste trabalho foi levantar subsídios experimentais para a extração de princípios ativos dos grãos de café canephora, variedade robusta, usando CO2 supercítrico. Os dados foram obtidos num aparelho de extração a altas pressões e os princípios ativos analisados por HPLC. As solubilidades da cafeína pura e a obtida dos grãos do café no CO2 supercítrico foram deteminadas a 313, 323 e 343 K, de 9,5 a 23,5 Mpa. Os resultados mostram um comportamento retrógrado para a solubilidade da cafeína pura. O CO2 supercítrico apresentou maior seletividade pela cafeína quando comparada a trigonelina. Com grãos de café moídos foi possível obter quantidades apreciáveis de óleo de café.

II Congreso Iberoamericano de Ingenieria de Alimentos, Bahia Blanca - Argentina, 24-27 de março de 1998. Anais em CDrom.



C012-98 Borboletas ameaçadas de extinção na fauna de Minas Gerais

Brown Jr KS, Mielke OHH, Casagrande MM

A ordem de Lepidoptera inclui as borboletas, em sua quase totalidade de hábitos diurnos, e as mariposas, em sua grande maioria noturnas. No mundo são conhecidas hoje aproximadamente 150 mil espécies de lepidópteros, das quais 10 mil são borboletas. No Brasil devem ocorrer ao todo 80 mil espécies de lepidópteros, das quais 3,3 mil são borboletas. São relativamente poucos os estudos faunísticos sobre as borboletas de Minas Gerais. São conhecidas hoje cerca de 1,6 mil espécies de borboletas em Minas Gerais, das quais vinte constam da Lista de Espécies Ameaçadas de Extinção da Fauna do Estado. O estudo minucioso dessas espécies e dos fatores que as ameaçam indicou que a causa principal da redução das populações de borboletas em Minas Gerais é a destruição de seu hábitat, especialmente da Mata Atlântica e do Cerrado, o que elimina grande parte das plantas que as lagartas utilizam como alimento ou as flores e a vegetação preferida pelos adultos.

In ABM Machado, GAB da Fonseca, RB Machado, LMS Aguiar, LV Lins (eds.), Livro Vermelho da Espécies Ameaçadas de Extinção da Fauna de Minas Gerais. Belo Horizonte, Fundação Biodiversitas, pp. 512-559, figs. coloridas 33-52, 1998.

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